But what about non-living things. Can nonliving bodies exert a force? Yes, they can .If we stand in a great storm, we feel that the wind is exerting a force on us Similarly, When we suspend a heavy block from a rope, the rope holds the block just as a man can hold it in air. When we comb our dry hair and bring the comb close to small pieces of paper, the pieces jump to the comb.
This is because, the comb has attracted the paper pieces i.e. the comb has exerted force on the on the pieces again, When a cork is dipped in water it comes to the surface, It we want to keep it in side water, we have to push it downward. Hence, we can say that water is exerts a force on the cork in the upward direction. So, there are lot of examples of forces, we can find in Nature, In scientific language, Force is an interaction between two objects. The SI unit for measuring the force is called a Newton, Basically, it is the force needed to hold a body of mass 102g near the ear this surface.
The various types of forces in nature can be grouped in four categories:
- Gravitational Force
- Electromagnetic Force
- Nuclear Force
- Week force
1. Gravitational Force
The Gravitational force is one of primary forces of Nature. this force is between two interacting particles which arises because of their masses. This force is attractive in nature. If is governed by Newton’s low of Gravitation. The force of attraction between two point masses is F=G m1 m2/R^2 (Where m1 and m2 are masses of the particles and R are the distance between them. ) G is a universal constant having the value 6.67*10^-11 N-m^2 /kg^2.
These Types of force can be existing between Planet and other heavenly bodies of the Universe. The gravitational interaction (action from a distance) between two bodies may also be explained on the basis of the Field concept. The force on a body due to another body is assumed to be due to exchange of a particle, called the Field Particle. The gravitation is the field particle in case of gravitational interaction.
2. Electromagnetic Force
Electromagnetic force comes after gravitational force and playing important role for our planet is second forces in nature. This force between two interacting particles aired on account of their charges and had two parts, namely electric and magnetic. The electric part of the electromagnetic interaction is described by the Coulomb’s electrostatic force between two stationary point charges. The electrostatic force between two charges may be attractive (between opposite charges) are repulsive (between like charges)
F= 1 q1q2 /4πEo r^2
Where ∈=8.85*10^-19 c^2 /N-m^2 is a constant. The quantity 1/(4π∈o ) is 〖9*10〗^9 Nm^2/c^2.
This is called Coulomb force and it acts along the time joining the particles. If q1 and q2 are of same nature (Both positive or both negative), the force is repulsive otherwise it is attractive. That is why; it is this force which is responsible for the attraction of small paper pieces when brought near a recently used comb. A lot of atomic and molecular phenomena results from electromagnetic forces between the subatomic particles (electrons, protons, charged mesons etc.)
3. Nuclear Force
Nuclear forces are the strongest forces in nature and it exists inside the Nuclear. These are also called strong force. In other words between nucleons (neutrons and proton), mesons between baryons and mesons are called strong forces. These force are largely attractive, But are short ranged. These forces are much weaker than the Coulomb force if the separation between the particles is more than 10^-14m, but for small’s separation (≈ 10^-15m), the nuclear forces s much stronger than the Coulomb force and being attractive it holds the nucleus stable.
Radio activity, Nuclear Energy (fusion and fission) result from Nuclear Force.
4. WEEK FORCE
The week interaction is characteristics of leptons (electrons, protons, neutrinos positrons etc.) the Force that responsible for interaction between leptons and other Leptons, Leptons and Mesons (π-Mesons and K-Mesons) , between leptons and baryons (nucleons and Hyperion) are called Week Force.
Such interaction place only when two particles are in contact or exactly overlap each other. Hence Week Force are Short Range force (≈ 10^-16m). In a Week force neutrinos acts as Field Particles
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