Ancient Chinese underwater city ShiCheng

A Ancient Chinese underwater city : ShiCheng city found

Chinese city ShiCheng was Situated underwater.  ShiCheng  city is Located between 85 and 131 feet underwater. ShiCheng is also known as Lion City, found over 1339 years ago situated in east China’s Zhejiang Province, has been submerged under Qiandao Lake since 1959 for the construction of the Xin’an River Hydropower Station.

Chinese National Geographic magazine published pictures of Shicheng City February 2013.City age is nearly 1339 and located in Zhejiang Province, East China. In 1959, the city was submerged under Lake Qiandao so that the Xin’an River Hydropower Station could be constructed.

Archaeologist tried to restore map of city and they came up with five gates in all directions. The city location is now about 26-40 meters (85 -131 feet) beneath Qiandao Lake. Shicheng city is approximately 62 football fields in size.

ShiCheng city  is same condition as it was before. City did not affected by Sun or water and other types of chemical. City is remains in stable condition. City was known as Center of politics, economics and culture of Sui’an County in that area

Map’s of ShiCheng city is recreated. In the map, City has  Five gates in all Directions. You can find gates on each tower, there are total Five Towers. Six Roads are used to connect the city from all directions. Road are made up from stone,tidily paved by flagstone and pebbles.

International Archaeologist named this city as “time capsule”. this city is maintain perfect condition since when this gone into underwater. It has been able to maintain its stable condition since it’s shielded from erosion by rain, wind and sun. All the walls, street stairs, and other things are persevered from erosion by rain, wind and sun. since underwater city are best for Archaeologist for their work.

Before going into underwater city was the center of economics, politics and culture of the Sui’an County. Sui’an county history writes that there was a total of 265 arches submerged under the Qiandao lake. Some of them are still present into city.

INVISIBLE CLOCK can hide Object – will be Reality

INVISIBLE CLOCK can hide Object

This is one of good news for those who believe in Science Fiction. Scientist are nearly to create a material that can reflect / bend light from object and object will hide and can’t seen

Led by Xiang Zhang, director of materials science at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, has created a thin film consisting of a 50-nanometer-thick layer of magnesium fluoride topped by a varying pattern of tiny, brick-shaped gold antennas, each 30 nanometers thick. The “bricks” were built in six different sizes, ranging from about 30 to 220 nanometers long and 90 to 175 nanometers wide.

But the Team of scientist is doing almost everything to hide the irregular object. In the previous time, some Scientist were able to create material that can hid regular shape object but not irregular shape object

Invisibility cloaks are design in such a way that it can bend light around an object. But materials that do this are typically hard to shape and only work from narrow angles. But a new cloak avoids that problem, and is thin and flexible enough to be wrapped around an object of any shape, the researchers said. It can also be “tuned” to match whatever background is behind it — or can even create illusions of what’s there, they added.

Xiang Zhang Team covered a tiny, irregular shaped object measuring about 36 microns across (or a bit more than one-thousandth of an inch).
The researchers said that “shining a light, with a wavelength of 730 nanometers, or near-infrared, they found that it reflected back almost perfectly. The light scattering from the cloak still bounced off the object, but without revealing where the object was — as though there were just a flat mirror in its place”. Scientists explained “the tiny object gone invisible because the gold antennas controlled the scattering of the light that reflects off of it”

light reflecting off an object – even a glass mirror, will scatter at least a little, especially if the shape is irregular. The waves of light will also sometimes create interference patterns.

Zhang said the cloaking technology’s reflectivity offers another application: displays. Right now, any big projection (e.g., a movie in a theater) has to use a relatively flat surface. But if the phase and frequency of the light reflected from it could be finely controlled, that problem could go away. A projection surface could be any shape, and the resulting picture would not be distorted. This kind of material has been fabricated before, and that a next step would be to make a lot of it at industrial scales, tuning the antennas to different wavelengths of light.

The new invisibility cloak changes that: The gold bricks reflect the light in such a way that the light’s phase and frequency are both preserved. (Phase is an angle measurement that tells you how far along a light wave you are; two waves 180 degrees out of phase cancel out.) The ultrathin cloak creates an effect that makes it seem like the light were hitting a perfect mirror and the cloak and object weren’t even there. Even the edges are invisible with the new device, the researchers said.


NASA Europa Mission – Prob May Land on Ocean-Harboring Moon

NASA Europa Mission -Prob May Land on Ocean-Harboring Moon

NASA’s new mission to Europa may touch Jupiter moon for finding Life sign. NASA and other space agency planning to send prob to EUROPA to find out more about is there any Life exist or not.

Researcher did enough research about EUROPA and has good knowledge and they know that its ocean has existed since the dawn of the solar system 4.5 billion years ago, giving putative lifeforms plenty of time to evolve, Hand explained.

NASA’s aim to send Europa Mission satellite by mid of 2020, involves characterizing the icy satellite from afar during dozens of flybys.

“We are actively pursuing the possibility of a lander,” Robert Pappalardo, Europa project scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California, said last week during a panel discussion at the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics’ Space 2015 conference in Pasadena. (JPL manages the Europa mission.)

“NASA has asked us to investigate: What would it take? How much would it cost? Could we put a small surface package on Europa with this mission?” Pappalardo added.

About Europa Mission

NASA did not give name to EUROPA MISSION till now. NASA tries to find out every possible idea that could lead this mission to successful as well as life clue finder on EUROPA. Europa mission could launch by 2022. After reaching Jupiter orbit, the robotic probe will perform 45 flybys of Europa over the course of 2.5 years or so these flybys have different – different types of Science instrument like high-resolution cameras , a heat detector and ice-penetrating radar.

NASA SAID “ The mission’s observations should teach scientists a great deal about the moon’s surface composition, the nature of its underground ocean and its ability to support life as we know it”

This EUROPA Mission could send a prob on EUROPA surface to find out more information about it’s ice structure and life under ice. It may be possible that life could be present as micro organism under ice but scientist is not sure about this.

Europa is one of the smoothest objects in the Solar System when considering the lack of large scale features such as mountains or craters,[34] however on a smaller scale Europa’s equator has been theorised to be covered in 10 metre tall icy spikes called penitentes caused by the effect of direct overhead sunlight on the equator melting vertical cracks
you may find more information Wikipedia website

Europa MISSION scientist at NASA’s Washington headquarters said “We actually don’t know what the surface of Europa looks like at the scale of this table, at the scale of a lander — if it’s smooth, if it’s incredibly rough, if it’s full of spikes,”Curt Niebur”. He also said that “Without knowing what the surface even looks like, it’s difficult to design a lander that could survive”
“By the end of this year, we should have an idea of how that’s looking,”
Pappalardo said at the Space 2015 conference
It may be biggest problem in designing prob lender for EUROPA Surface. Scientist do not know how the EUROPA SURFACE looks. And Second scientist also wants to be EUROPA MISSION should have as minimum budget as they can. Su that money will not be problem in this mission

Mars one Mission

Mars one Mission – 6 Team Members live alone for one year

Mars one Mission – 6 Team Members live alone for one year

This is Second Edition of Mars One Mission. Now Recently news from Mars One Mission, Team of 6 Scientist went to live alone in confines of a 36-foot-wide (11 meters) and 20-foot-high (6 m) solar-powered dome in a remote location on the island of Hawaii. This is first time in Human history such scientist activity performed. They will live there for 365 days (1 year).

Team of 6 Scientist will not have any direct contact with human or they will get reply after 15-20 min delay like mars over does(Mars Rover is Nasa’s Robot that sent on mars to check sign of life and robot get signal after 20 min sent from earth Because Signal took 20 min to reach on mars).

The crew consists of three women and three men in which four crew are American, one is French and one is German. All crew members are from different – different fields of specialties including physics, soil science, biology, medicine, robotic spaceflight, astrophysics and architecture. Fact which will come from this project will get good knowledge for Scientists and help Mars one Mission

Mars One Mission will send Human to Mars to live over their rest life. And Astronaut who sent on Mars will do research on mars and will send data to Earth. Mars Mission will send Astronut Teams in Four phases. Each time Team of Astronaut have 6 -8 Members. You will find more detail on official website
Website link here

In this way, we will have to good knowledge of how our Solar System. Scientist will have better knowledge of Mars. This mission is performed to carry out, “how human will react when they will not have any direct human contact or and also find out how people will respond to the isolation. These fact will extremely helpful in Mars One mission and they will get ready for all types of circumstances.

“We hope that this upcoming mission will build on our current understanding of the social and psychological factors involved in long-duration space exploration,” Kim Binsted, principal investigator for HI-SEAS, said in a statement from the University of Hawaii.

The HI-SEAS project is based at University of Hawaii at Manoa. HI-SEAS project done four past project for Mars One mission to keep Team of people in isolated mock Mars colony. Two mission were 4 month in 2013 and 2014 and recent mission of an eight-month mission that ended in June 2015. In this project, people allowed to wear astronaut suit while they went outside and do some research and play like golf.

From Recent mission one of team Member Sheyna Gifford tweeted on Saturday (Aug. 29) with picture of a quesadilla She tweeted “First dinner in simulated space: The cheese & turkey quesadilla & all the veggies were all dehydrated 30 min. ago.” Gifford, who is serving as the mission’s health science officer and habitat journalist, has also worked as a science journalist.

The HI-SEAS habitat features a downstairs area with a lab, a kitchen, a common workspace, an exercise area, a dining room and a bathroom. Upstairs are six small bedrooms and a bathroom.

magnetic wormhole

Magnetic wormhole

Magnetic wormhole

Some century ago, we are looking for Electricity and light. And some time ago, we are thinking about Time Travel and Warm hole. Scientist are working on these and now they made a landmark In direction of Time travel or wormhole . Warmhole is just and theory that can make tunnel between space and time. It means we can go to another Galaxy or other star(s) or go anywhere in space within small amount of time.

According to new Research of Autonomous University of Barcelona in Spain that made Magnetic wormhole.

This device can transmit the magnetic field from one point in space to another point, through a path that is magnetically invisible,” said study co-author Jordi Prat-Camps, a doctoral candidate in physics at the Autonomous University of Barcelona in Spain

But idea of WormHole is old and comes from Albert Einstein’s theories of general theory of relativity. General Theory of relativity also called these Einstein-Rosen bridges , was invented by Einstein and colleague Nathan Rosen realized. It states that it allowed for the existence of bridges that could link two different points in space-time.

Theoretically, or wormholes, could allow something to tunnel instantly between great distances , though the tunnels in this theory are extremely tiny, so ordinarily wouldn’t fit a space traveler.

Device made by Autonomous University of Barcelona that can only hide magnetic field now. But in near Future, we may be able to find a good way to create wormhole and go anywhere like Movie Star Treek. In this movie commander went on space walk (space walk is state in which Any time an astronaut gets out of a vehicle while in space, it is called a spacewalk ).

ABOUT RESEARCH OF Magnetic wormhole

Autonomous University of Barcelona Team designed a three-layer object, consisting of two concentric spheres with an interior spiral-cylinder. The interior layer essentially transmitted a magnetic field from one end to the other, while the other two layers acted to conceal the field’s existence.

The inner cylinder was made of a ferromagnetic mu-metal. Ferromagnetic materials exhibit the strongest form of magnetism, while mu-metals are highly permeable and are often used for shielding electronic devices.

A thin shell made up of a high-temperature superconducting material called yttrium barium copper oxide lined the inner cylinder, bending the magnetic field that traveled through the interior.

The final shell was made of another mu-metal, but composed of 150 pieces cut and placed to perfectly cancel out the bending of the magnetic field by the superconducting shell. The whole device was placed in a liquid-nitrogen bath (high-temperature superconductors require the low temperatures of liquid nitrogen to work).

Prat told Live Science said that From a magnetic point of view, you have the magnetic field from the magnet disappearing at one end of the wormhole and appearing again at the other end of the wormhole

Mars One Mission

Mars One Mission

Mars One Mission,

Mars One is now planning to get more investment toward Mars Mission (established some people on mars). They are now working hard to get their Mission successfully.

But they are facing financial problem, When Mars started mars mission they were thinking about to complete the mission with some private investors. But now they are planning to get more private investor so their mission could be complete by time – 2028.

The biggest challenges facing the project are financial rather than technical, so a big donation from a deep-pocketed person concerned about his or her legacy could make a huge difference, Mars One representatives said

They also said Mars One “is so ambitious and — I think ‘crazy’ is the right word — that we might actually get a phone call from a billionaire who says, ‘I want to make this happen. I want the first city on Mars to be called Gatesville or Slim City,” said Mars One co-founder and CEO Bas Lansdorp.


Mars One planned to establish humans on Mars planet. According to Mars One CEO Lansdorp – our mission is to establish Human Colony on mars and they will stay and live their rest life on mars. While people live on mars they will do some research and try to grow plants on Mars. This mission helps Scientist to get more information about our solar System works and what happened to Mars.
How many people will send to mars and process of selecting people
Mars one Crews Selection has many rules and multiple round when someone passed on these tests he / she will selected you can found more information about process of Selection

Technology used in Mars One Mission

Technology will not be different from existing Tech. but due to Gravity difference and other circumstances they are still designing new tech to use by people on Mars. All Equipement are design by Third party company so that it taking some time to make decision on Technology. Mars One is not an aerospace company

According to Mars One Website.

The Mars One crews consist of people that want to settle on Mars. Absence of a return mission reduces the mission infrastructure radically. No return vehicle, return propellant or the systems to produce the propellant locally are required. Permanent settlement also reduces the required technology development; vehicles that can take off from Mars and return to Earth are currently unavailable and untested.

What will first Mars Colony or city called?

Mars One still need to some good amount of investments in their mission and so that are calling billionaire to invest. What if Bill gates invested in this project and want his name on mars city ro Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerburgh invested in ptoject then mars colony will called

What you will name these city ……

There is name is no matter, they only thing maters, what Mars One will complete this mission and people will land on mars successfully and live their rest life on mars without any problem. And they will do some research on Mars for us while living on Mars they will send us information about mars and our solar System

I really wish Mars One Mission should happened because Human need new Home Planet soon not because Global warming also for other reasons too.

NASA next Mission - Megarocket could go to Europa

NASA next Mission – Megarocket could go to Europa

NASA next Mission – Megarocket could go to Europa
Nasa planning to go around the universe, Is it a great news, yes it is. Nasa will soon start work on Rocket that will go over the an asteroid, Mars and other distant destinations.

The Space Launch System (SLS) will launch megarocket in 2018 to fly for the first time. It will be unmanned spacecraft spacecraft toward their targets at incredible speeds, dramatically reducing interplanetary travel times, said John Grunsfeld, associate administrator of NASA’s Science Mission Directorate

“My view is that the Space Launch System will be transformative for science,” Grunsfeld told members of the U.S. House of Representatives’ Science, Space and Technology Committee during a hearing Tuesday entitled “Exploration of the Solar System: From Mercury to Pluto and Beyond

Now Nasa planning to mission about to reach on Jupiter’s ocean-harboring moon Europa, they think to launch this mission by mid of 2020
Using SLS instead of currently available rockets would slash the probe’s journey to the Jupiter system from about eight years to less than three years, Grunsfeld said.

About Space Launch System SLS

Space Launch System is an American Space Shuttle-derived heavy expendable launch vehicle being designed by NASA. It is using In place of older Space Shuttle that are not working properly.

NASA next Mission - Megarocket could go to Europa
Credit: Karl Tate,

He also said “This is one of those rare cases where time really is money”.he also said “In that extra cruise time, you know, we have to maintain an engineering team and a science team and a spacecraft while it’s in cruise, even if we hibernate. And that’s something that also delays the science.”

This August, Nasa made milestone in Universe, Nasa‘s Horizons spacecraft first-ever flyby of Pluto.
was launched by a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket.

Grunsfeld said “New Horizons weighed just 1,050 lbs. (480 kilograms) fully fueled, but its mission still required the most powerful variant of the Atlas V”

And New Horizons zoomed straight through the Pluto system at high speed for a one-time flyby. Spacecraft that linger around a celestial body — such as the Europa probe, which will perform at least 45 flybys of Europa from Jupiter orbit — cannot travel so light, said New Horizons principal investigator Alan Stern, of the SouthwestResearch Institute in Boulder, Colorado

It is not enough for Nasa, they also plans for “evolved” 384-foot-tall (117 m) SLS version that can launch 143 tons (130,000 kg) and generate 20 percent more thrust than the Saturn V

An illustration depicts NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft in orbit above the moon. Credit: NASA Ames/Dana Berry

Neon Found on the Moon

Neon Found on the Moon

The moon does contains very little sign on of life, Now Researcher found NEON (Ne)on the Moon.
NASA’s “LADEE spacecraft “ has found of neon in the wispy lunar atmosphere of Moon, which is properly known as an “exosphere” because it’s so thin — about 100 trillion times less dense than that of Earth at sea level.

The presence of neon in the exosphere of the moon has been a subject of speculation since the Apollo missions, but no credible detections were made,” study lead author Mehdi Benna, of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, and the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, said in a statement. “We were very pleased to not only finally confirm its presence, but to show that it is relatively abundant.”

“But the gas is not abundant enough on the moon to generate the famous neon glow, NASA officials said.”

About LADEE Spacecraft

LADEE spacecraft — which is made for search over Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment of moon —it studied the moon’s exosphere from orbit for seven months, after launched from September 2013 to end of its mission in April 2014.
The spacecraft’s Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) instrument determined that the moon’s atmosphere is composed mainly of helium, argon and neon. Most of this material comes from the solar wind, a diverse stream of particles flowing from the sun at about 1 million mph (1.6 million km/h). Other elements in the solar wind tend to stick to the lunar surface, because they’re more volatile than helium, argon and neon, NASA officials said.

But the NMS data showed that some of the exospheric gases come from moon rocks, via the process of radioactive decay. About 20 percent of the helium probably came from the decay of uranium and thorium, and some of the argon from the decay of potassium-40 into argon-40, researchers said.

“We were also surprised to find that argon-40 creates a local bulge above an unusual part of the moon’s surface, the region containing [the dark volcanic plains] Mare Imbrium and Oceanus Procellarum,” Benna said. “One could not help [but] notice that this region happens to be the place where potassium-40 is most abundant on the surface. So there may be a connection between the atmospheric argon, the surface potassium and deep interior sources.”

LADEE’s measurements also revealed that argon abundance changed by about 25 percent over the course of the spacecraft’s mission, possibly as a result of outgassing caused by the Earth’s strong gravitational tug, researchers said.


Atomic number 10
Atomic mass 20.179 g.mol -1
Density 0.9*10 -3 at 20°C
Melting point -249 °C
Boiling point -246 °C
Vanderwaals radius 0.16 nm
Isotopes 3
Discovered by Sir Ramsay in 1898

neon is the forth most abundant element in the universe, only 0.0018% in volume of the earth’s atmosphere is neon

Exoplanet could contain Water – Kepler-62f

Exoplanet could contain Water – Kepler-62f
Researcher doing some research on dubbed Kepler-62f, has a diameter 40 percent larger than that of Earth,

They came up with great news. Here is what they found

”An Exoplanet can have Water “ Researchers said. It means there may also have Carbon and oxygen present in atmosphere. The only codition for water is planet atmosphere should be warm it.

They also said that “high carbon-dioxide atmosphere is a reliable way to put liquid water on this planet,” Aomawa Shields, a scientist at the University of California, Los Angeles, he is involved in the new research aid at the Astrobiology Science Conference in Chicago in June.

Kepler-62 is a small, dim star two-thirds the size of the sun and only one-fifth as bright. Five planets orbit the star, which lies 1,200 light-years from the sun in the constellation Lyra.Only two planets lie in the habitable zone, which liquid water could lie on the surface of a planet.

Water is main ingredient for evolution of life. Two Planets present in Kepler-62 are considered as Super Earth — rocky exoplanets (Super Earth are larger then Earth ). When it was discovered, Kepler-62f was the most Earth-like planet known, in terms of size and orbit.
Kepler-62f present at farther from it’s sun. It is the farthest out of the five planets known to orbit the star. which it circles once every 267.3 Earth days.

An artist's image of Kepler-62f, a rocky world 60-percent larger than Earth that could boast oceans of water, given the right atmosphere. Credit: NASA Ames/JPL-Caltech/T. Pyle
An artist’s image of Kepler-62f, a rocky world 60-percent larger than Earth that could boast oceans of water, given the right atmosphere.
Credit: NASA Ames/JPL-Caltech/T. Pyle


Shields put the planet into a simulation with an Earth-like rotation and a carbon-dioxide atmosphere. She then studied it with different obliquities — in other words, the angles at which it tilts in respect to the sun. In one case, the planet boasted an Earth-like obliquity of around 23 degrees, while in another, it had a sharper tilt of 60 degrees. Both scenarios resulted in the freezing of surface water, creating an icy snowball planet.

Kepler-62f lies farther from its sun — in fact, it is the farthest out of the five planets known to orbit the star, which it circles once every 267.3 Earth days.

thoth technology space elevator

Space Elevator Could Lift People 12 Miles From Ground

thoth technology space elevator
thoth technology space elevator

This News for Scifi lover how want to live life like in science fiction movies has. Now
this time, a Canadian space company patent for a SPACE ELEVATOR that can reach up to 12 miles from ground

Although , Space Elevator is considered as a theoretical technology, they have been billed as a cheaper alternative to rocket launches, especially when it comes to sending heavy objects or people into space

According to Thoth Technology Inc., “the company that was awarded the patent, the U.S. patent allows for an elevator that would be 30 percent cheaper than the fuel required by a conventional rocket. Also, the system would be fully reusable, further reducing costs”, the company said.

“Astronauts would ascend to 20 km by electrical elevator,” inventor Brendan Quine said in a statement. “From the top of the tower, space planes will launch in a single stage to orbit, returning to the top of the tower for refueling and reflight.”

Thoth CEO Caroline Roberts Said “Space transportation options will increase if other companies contribute to the effort of developing alternatives to traditional rockets”

SpaceX is testing self-landing rockets, company made many attempts to self landing Rockets a version of its Falcon 9 rocket on a sea barge dron. If company success to create self landing robot then this will reduce cost in Rocket Launch

“Landing on a barge at sea level is a great demonstration,” Roberts said, “but landing at 12 miles above sea level will make spaceflight more like taking a passenger jet.”

RGG 118 Black hole found ,smallest supermassive black hole

RGG 118 Black hole found

RGG 118 Black hole found

Black hole found in center of Galaxy. Black hole size is tinny but it contains mass 50,000 times more than our sun.

The smallest supermassive black hole ever identified is gobbling material at rates similar to its larger cousins, providing insights into how these behemoths evolve.
The smallest supermassive black hole ever detected in the center of a galaxy.

Every important thing that you should know

Balck hole Nmae: RGG 118
Located at: Center of dwarf galaxy also known as RGG 118
Mass contains: about 50,000 times more mass than the sun

Capture by: NASA’s Chandra spacecraft
View : X-ray view of the black hole
Galaxy: Dwarf
Distance: 340 million light-years from Earth
Detected: studying the motion of gas near the galaxy’s center with the 21-foot (6.5 meters) Clay Telescope in Chile.
Formed: This oxymoronic object could provide clues to how much larger black holes formed along with their host galaxies 13 billion years or more in the past.
strong> Observatory Lab: NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory

gobbling up material : 1 percent the maximum rate (Estimated – Similar to that of other, larger supermassive black holes.)

More about RGG 118 Black Hole

The smallest supermassive black hole ever detected in the center of a galaxy has been identified using observations with Chandra and the 6.5-meter Clay Telescope. The host galaxy for the tiny heavyweight black hole is a dwarf disk galaxy called RGG 118, shown in an image from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The inset is a Chandra image of the galaxy’s center, showing hot gas near the black hole. This oxymoronic object could provide clues to how much larger black holes formed along with their host galaxies 13 billion years or more in the past.

How Black Hole Forms : – Scientist are no so sure. There are controversy between scientist. Here are thesis
Scientists still aren’t sure exactly how supermassive black holesare born and grow. One idea posits that huge clouds of gas collapse into “seed” black holes, which merge over time to form the larger, supermassive black holes. Other researchers think they form when a giant star, approximately 100 times the mass of the sun, runs out of fuel and collapses into a black hole.